11 March 2019

In 2006, Ruiqiang Li, the now CEO of Novogene, said to me in Chinese: “you can’t maintain the TreeFam database forever”. Considering TreeFam as my most significant work at the time, I said “I think I can”. Some of you know what happened next: one year later, I started to develop tools for next-gen sequencing data and forgot about TreeFam almost completely. Few can constantly and single-handedly maintain their own software or databases.

A database has to receive constant updates to stay relevant, but a software package is much different. Along with TreeFam, I also developed a companion tool, TreeBeST (written in C++ by the way). It is used by Ensembl Compara to build gene trees and still serves the community. A few months ago when I needed to view and compare trees, I downloaded the binary of TreeBeST compiled in 2007. It still works. A software package can survive without the attention of its developer.

Currently I have 74 repos at GitHub. Most of them are my own projects in a state similar to TreeBeST. They still work for the specific tasks they were designed for but they rarely receive code changes any more. This is how I maintain my personal projects: I try not to maintain them. To achieve the goal, 1) I strive to simplify the user interface to reduce users’ questions. 2) I make my projects independent of each other and of external libraries to avoid changes in dependencies failing my own projects. 3) If I perceive significant changes to an existing code base, I more often duplicate the code and start fresh (e.g. fermi vs fermi2 vs fermi-lite, and minimap vs minimap2). This way I can forget about compatibility and freely cut technical debts without affecting the stability of the previous versions. These strategies have enabled me to switch projects from time to time without leaving unmanageable messes behind.

Many fundamental tools in bioinformatics (e.g. BLAST, samtools/htslib and GATK) have thrived only due to continuous efforts by a stable development team, but in reality, much more tools are coded in short term by individual developers who lack sustainable resources. In the latter case, developing simple, clean and self-consistent tools without need for maintenance is often the best way towards maintenance, just as Richard Durbin, my postdoc advisor, said in an interview: “a key thing is that software or a data format does a clean job correctly, that it works … support isn’t a critical thing, in a strange way. Rather, it’s the lack of need for support that’s important”. Think about this when you develop your next coding project.

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